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In the following it may perhaps be pardoned for the novelty of the metaphor, which possibly however is not of his own invention : Voyant les combatans de la Balle forcee Merquez de iaune et blanc l'vn l'autre terracer, Pesle-mesle courir, se battre, se pousser, Pour gaigner la victoire en la foule pressee : Ie pense que la Terre a l'egal balancee Dedans l'air toute ronde, ainsi fait amasser Les hommes anx combats, a fin de renverser Ses nourricons brulans d'vne gloire insensee.

La Balle ha sa rondeur toute pleine de vent : Pour du vent les mortels font la guerre souuent, Ne rapportant du ieu que la Mort qui les domte, Car tout ce monde bas n'est qu'vn flus et reflus, Et n'apprennent iamais a toute fin de conte, Sinon que cette vie est vn songe et rien plus 1. Another feature of Jamyn's work, which is not strictly a literary one, but which is worth noticing because he shares it in common with most of the members of his school, is the servility of his attitude towards his royal patrons.

They were an insult to the good taste and the good feeling of the nation. It was this subservience on the part of the Pleiad poets to the vices of the court which specially stirred the indignation of the Protestants, and led by the force of reaction to the more manly poetry of Du Bartas and D'Aubigne. But before proceeding to consider the new 1 Ed. Brunet, I. See P. The work of the Pleiad. The first great achievement of the Pleiad was the intro- duction of a higher conception of the functions of poetry than had prevailed in France for nearly three centuries.

Of the higher possibilities of poetry Marot had only a glimmer, while Sceve and Margaret of Navarre, though their conception was sufficiently lofty, practically lacked the accomplishment of verse. The confidence therefore with which Du Bellay proclaimed his belief in the future of French poetry and in its capacity to deal with the highest themes was of the greatest importance.

It was of equal importance that he pointed to the classical and the Italian languages as witnesses to what poetry might achieve, and as furnishing models for the study and emulation of Frenchmen. It is true that the Pleiad by no means learnt all the lessons that the great classical masterpieces have to teach. They learnt neither economy nor restraint ; nor did they learn that all great poetry springs from the direct observation of life.

But they did learn this — that the language and the style of poetry are different from those of prose 1. This was the capital theory of the Pleiad, the theory round which all their reforms centred, whether in vocabulary, in syntax, in style, or in versification '". Rosenbauer, Die poetischen Theorien der Plejade, well points out that the reform of the Pleiad consisted in the sjjbstilulipn of poetic style for rhyme as the principal aim of poetry p.

It will be re- membered how Wordsworth's theory that ' between the language of prose and that of metrical composition there neither is nor can be any essential difference' is demolished once for all by Coleridge in his Biographia litteraria As regards the reforms in vocabulary, so far is it from true that ' the muse of Ronsard spoke Greek and Latin ' that except in his earliest work one has to search diligently before finding a Greek or a Latin word.

In reality the methods which Du Bellay and Ronsard indicated for the enrichment of the poetic vocabulary were twofold : i the adoption of existing words hitherto neglected, such as archaisms, provincialisms and the technical terms of various trades 1 ; ii the formation of new words whether from Greek or Latin, or from French sources.

To the formation from disused French words Ronsard gave the picturesque name of provignement, the technical term for the layering of plants 2. Now all these methods of adding to the vocabulary are perfectly legitimate, and it only depends upon whether they are used with discretion. This discretion Ronsard and Du Bellay not only preached, but on the whole practised. Whether they would have done so without the criticisms that were freely directed against their youthful essays is another matter ; and it is noteworthy that Ronsard in one of the last poems he ever wrote, the Caprice a Simon Nicolas 2 , says as boldly as Du Bellay in the Deffence: Promeine-toy dans les plaines Attiques, Fay nouveaux mots, r'appelle les antiques, Yoy les Romains, et destine du ciel, Desrobe, ainsi que les mouches a miel, Leurs belles fleurs par les Charites peintes.

Lors sans viser aux jalouses attaintes Des mal-vueillans, formes-en les douceurs Que Melpomene inspire dans les cceurs!

J'ay fait ainsi : toutesfois ce vulgaire, A qui jamais je n'ay peu satisfaire, Ny n'ay voulu, me fascha tellement De son japper en mon adventment, 1 Tu n'oublieras les noms propres des outils de tons mestiers et prendras plaisir a fenquerir le phis que tu pourras, et principalement de la chasse. Abrege', vn. The reference to Henry of Navarre as the heir to the throne shews that it must have been written after the death of Alencon in June It was not published in Ronsard's lifetime. Ouand je hantay les eaux de Castalie, Que nostre langue en est moins embellie ; Car elle est manque, et faut de Taction Pour la conduire a sa perfection.

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Indeed some of his followers, especially Bai'f, were not so ready to submit to the compromise which common sense dictated. But whatever were Ronsard's reasons the number of words of Greek or Latin formation which he invented and which have since dropped out of the vocabulary is relatively very small 1. On the other hand he drew far more largely from the older French language, but the majority of his archaic introductions failed to keep their place.

He is not however the only poet against whom this charge can be brought. The reforms of the Pleiad in the matter of syntax are less defensible.


These however were not peculiar to the Pleiad ; Rabelais, for instance, practised them freely. Passing from vocabulary and syntax to the general question of style it must be noticed that the Pleiad in their endeavours to create a poetical style distinct from that of prose somewhat oversho t the mark. They were too fond of periphrasis, and they were too much afraid of using common words! Un- fortunately it was just" these exaggerations of their theory which commended themselves to the unpoetical minds of their 1 M.

In Marty-Laveaux's glossary of the Pleiad, which, though it does not pretend to be exhaustive, may be taken as representative, Greek words occupy 40 pages, Latin 76, archaisms , and technical terms Estienne, Precellence, pp. On the other hand the essential part of their reform, the cultivation of the imagination, was entirely over- looked. The defects of the school are tolerably obvious. In the first place the writers studied literature too much, and life t oo little.

It was literature, an d not li fe, which inspired many of their happiest efforts 2. They would probably have argued that so long as the style was their own it did not matter if the ideas were borrowed. Unfortunately even the style of many of the lesser writers is not so much their own as one common to the whole school. Bastier de la P eruse was only voicing the sentiments of the whole school when he wrote : J'ay cache dix mille vers rieins de graces nompareilles, Qui ne seront descouvers Que pour les doctes oreilles. Le vulgaire populace Ne merite telle grace, Et la grand' tourbe ignorante N'est digne qu'on les luy chante : Car Apollon ne veut pas Que celuy qu'il favorise Ses vers divins profanise Les chantant au peuple bas 3.

But the greatest poetry appeals alike to the learned and the unlearned. While Ronsard and his disciples success- fully vindicated the claims of the vernacular language to a 1 The services of the Pleiad to versification have already been pointed out in connexion with Ronsard, to whom they were chiefly due. Cited by Chamard, p. From one obvious blemish at any rate they would have been saved by a greater regard for the grand' tourbe igtiorante, and that is from the abuse of classical learning and classical mythology, in a word from the pedantry which is only another form of provincialism.

Thirdly, in spite of their too exclusive devotion to form their execution is often careless. They are too easily satisfied with their work, they lack the habit of rigorous self-criticism. Claiming to be above all things artists, they forget that an essential quality of a true artist is perfect craftmanship. From this reproach, indeed, Belleau, and to a considerable extent Ronsard, must be excepted. And even with the majority of Ronsard's followers it is chiefly in their execution of longer pieces that they fail. They can take pains with a sonnet or a short lyric, but when it comes to a more pro- longed effort they lose patience, and scamp their work. They did not realise that that immortality for which they all thirsted, and to which the least among them looked forward with such confident expectation, is not to be had on so easy terms.

Yet Du Bellay, though he did not always practise what he preached, had warned them that qui desire vivre en la memoire de la Posterite, doit, commc mart en soy mesme, siier et trembler maintesfois 1.

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It is not merely that they allow themselves too much licence in language and versification. This is a comparatively venial fault. But they write too fluently and too easily, without having sufficiently refined their ideas in the crucible of imagination, without having transmuted the rough ore into the gold of poetry. They go on writing after their inspiration is exhausted, and as a rule inspiration comes to them only in short breaths.

And 1 Deffcnce, II. On the other hand we must not forget that the repetition of the same defects in so many writers forces them upon our attention.

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It is by its best work and not by its failures that the Pleiad must in all fairness be judged. If it has produced no great national poem, if even its best work is neither deeply passionate nor daringly imaginative, it has enriched poetry with many examples jof rare be auty and excellence, models of grace and "Harmony. Continuation des Erreurs amoureuses, 1 5 5 1, and two other volumes. Les CEnvres poetiques, CEuvres, ed. Marty- Laveaux in Pleiade franqaise, with Dorat , Les amours et nouveaux eschanges des pierres precieuses, Picot, 1.

Les CEuvres poetiques, [ib.