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Memoir enthusiasts and those who enjoyed Julie and Julia will want to add this to the top of their to-read list.


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This literary feast will tantalize the taste buds and sweep readers into the kitchen. Throughout the memoir, she recollects reading the books and the effect they had on her before listing the recipe associated with that title. More than 50 carefully crafted recipes are featured. Nicoletti combines simple and complex recipes in the same title, but ensures readers will reach for their skillets when reading is complete. Cranberries are well-known for gracing our holiday feast but often are used year-round in kitchens.

Beyond that, they are a beautiful, yet unappreciated, fruit. There is an intimate beauty in this photographic journey that is rarely seen.

Counting cranberries gets easier with new technology developed at UW-Madison

Red lead , also known as minium , has been used since the time of the ancient Greeks. Chemically it is known as lead tetroxide. The Romans prepared it by the roasting of lead white pigment. It was commonly used in the Middle Ages for the headings and decoration of illuminated manuscripts. Dragon's blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of a number of distinct plant genera: Croton , Dracaena , Daemonorops , Calamus rotang and Pterocarpus. The red resin was used in ancient times as a medicine , incense , dye and varnish for making violins in Italy.

The tiny female cochineal insect of Spanish Mexico on the left , was crushed to make the deep crimson color used in Renaissance costumes. Extract of carmine , made by crushing cochineal and other scale insects which feed on the sap of live oak trees. Also called kermes , it was used from the Middle Ages until the 19th century to make crimson dye.

Now it is used as a coloring for yoghurt and other food products. The Sappanwood tree, native to India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka , and later the related Brazilwood tree shown here , from the coast of South America, were the source of a popular red pigment and dye called brazilin. The red wood was ground to powder and mixed with an alkaline solution.

The brazilwood gave its name to the nation of Brazil. Alizarin was the first synthetic red dye, created by German chemists in It duplicated the colorant in the madder plant, but was cheaper and longer lasting. After its introduction, the production of natural dyes from the madder plant virtually ceased. Red lac , also called red lake , crimson lake or carmine lake , was an important red pigment in Renaissance and Baroque art. Since it was translucent, thin layers of red lac were built up or glazed over a more opaque dark color to create a particularly deep and vivid color.

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Unlike vermilion or red ochre , made from minerals, red lake pigments are made by mixing organic dyes, made from insects or plants, with white chalk or alum. Red lac was made from the gum lac , the dark red resinous substance secreted by various scale insects, particularly the Laccifer lacca from India. Other red lakes were made from the rose madder plant and from the brazilwood tree. Red lake pigments were an important part of the palette of 16th-century Venetian painters, particularly Titian , but they were used in all periods.

It is banned in Denmark, Belgium, France and Switzerland, and was also banned in Sweden until the country joined the European Union in It is used in some tattoo inks and is used in many products, such as soft drinks , children's medications, and cotton candy.

Because of public concerns about possible health risks associated with synthetic dyes, many companies have switched to using natural pigments such as carmine , made from crushing the tiny female cochineal insect. This insect, originating in Mexico and Central America, was used to make the brilliant scarlet dyes of the European Renaissance. The red of autumn leaves is produced by pigments called anthocyanins. They are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season, but are actively produced towards the end of summer.

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Their formation depends on the breakdown of sugars in the presence of bright light as the level of phosphate in the leaf is reduced. During the summer growing season, phosphate is at a high level. It has a vital role in the breakdown of the sugars manufactured by chlorophyll.

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But in the fall, phosphate, along with the other chemicals and nutrients, moves out of the leaf into the stem of the plant. When this happens, the sugar-breakdown process changes, leading to the production of anthocyanin pigments. The brighter the light during this period, the greater the production of anthocyanins and the more brilliant the resulting color display. When the days of autumn are bright and cool, and the nights are chilly but not freezing, the brightest colorations usually develop. Anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the very young leaves as they unfold from the buds in early spring.

They also give the familiar color to such common fruits as cranberries , red apples , blueberries , cherries , raspberries , and plums. These same pigments often combine with the carotenoids' colors to create the deeper orange, fiery reds, and bronzes typical of many hardwood species. See Autumn leaf color. Oxygenated blood is red due to the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin that contains iron molecules, with the iron components reflecting red light.

Plants like apples , strawberries , cherries , tomatoes , peppers , and pomegranates are often colored by forms of carotenoids , red pigments that also assist photosynthesis. Red blood cell agar. Blood appears red due to the iron molecules in blood cells.

A red setter or Irish setter. Red hair appears in people with two copies of a recessive gene on chromosome 16 which causes a mutation in the MC1R protein. Red hair varies from a deep burgundy through burnt orange to bright copper. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin which also accounts for the red color of the lips and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The term redhead originally redd hede has been in use since at least Red is associated with dominance in a number of animal species.

Inside cave 13B at Pinnacle Point , an archeological site found on the coast of South Africa, paleoanthropologists in found evidence that, between , and 40, years ago, Late Stone Age people were scraping and grinding ochre , a clay colored red by iron oxide , probably with the intention of using it to color their bodies. Red hematite powder was also found scattered around the remains at a grave site in a Zhoukoudian cave complex near Beijing. The site has evidence of habitation as early as , years ago. The hematite might have been used to symbolize blood in an offering to the dead.

Red, black and white were the first colors used by artists in the Upper Paleolithic age, probably because natural pigments such as red ochre and iron oxide were readily available where early people lived. Madder , a plant whose root could be made into a red dye, grew widely in Europe, Africa and Asia. A red dye called Kermes was made beginning in the Neolithic Period by drying and then crushing the bodies of the females of a tiny scale insect in the genus Kermes , primarily Kermes vermilio. The insects live on the sap of certain trees, especially Kermes oak trees near the Mediterranean region.

A different variety of dye was made from Porphyrophora hamelii Armenian cochineal scale insects that lived on the roots and stems of certain herbs. It was mentioned in texts as early as the 8th century BC, and it was used by the ancient Assyrians and Persians.

Kermes is also mentioned in the Bible. In the Book of Exodus , God instructs Moses to have the Israelites bring him an offering including cloth "of blue, and purple, and scarlet. In ancient Egypt, red was associated with life, health, and victory.

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Egyptians would color themselves with red ochre during celebrations. But, like many colors, it also had a negative association, with heat, destruction and evil. A prayer to god Isis states: "Oh Isis, protect me from all things evil and red. Red ochre was widely used as a pigment for wall paintings, particularly as the skin color of men.

An ivory painter's palette found inside the tomb of King Tutankhamun had small compartments with pigments of red ochre and five other colors. The Egyptians used the root of the rubia , or madder plant, to make a dye, later known as alizarin , and also used it as a pigment, which became known as madder lake , alizarin or alizarin crimson. In Ancient China, artisans were making red and black painted pottery as early as the Yangshao Culture period — BC.

A red-painted wooden bowl was found at a Neolithic site in Yuyao, Zhejiang. Other red-painted ceremonial objects have been found at other sites dating to the Spring and Autumn period — BC. During the Han dynasty BC— AD Chinese craftsmen made a red pigment, lead tetroxide , which they called ch-ien tan , by heating lead white pigment. Like the Egyptians, they made a red dye from the madder plant to color silk fabric for gowns and used pigments colored with madder to make red lacquerware.

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Red lead or Lead tetroxide pigment was widely used as the red in Persian and Indian miniature paintings as well as in European art, where it was called minium. In India, the rubia plant has been used to make dye since ancient times. A piece of cotton dyed with rubia dated to the third millennium BC was found at an archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro.

The early inhabitants of America had their own vivid crimson dye , made from the cochineal , an insect of the same family as the Kermes of Europe and the Middle East, which feeds on the Opuntia , or prickly pear cactus plant.


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