Masters of Deception MOD was a New York -based group of hackers, most widely known in media for their exploits of telephone company infrastructure and later prosecution. MOD's initial membership grew from meetings on Loop-Around Test Lines that led to legendary collaborations to hack RBOC phone switches and the various minicomputers and mainframes used to administer the telephone network. They successfully remained underground using alternative handles to hide even their true hacker identities.
The name itself was, among other things, a mockery of LOD , as 'M' is one letter up in the alphabet from 'L', although the name originally was a flexible acronym that could be used to identify membership in situations where anonymity would be the best course of action. It could stand for "Millions of Dollars" just as easily as "Masters of Deception. Several LOD members were close friends of MOD who had been raided and indicted by the government, causing the majority of those who remained to drop out of the underground for safety reasons.
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In their absence, LOD largely fell into disarray causing the disagreement and disillusionment that led Phiber Optik to align himself with MOD in an effort to restore the direction of the spirit of underground hacking. What is trunking? What is pirate radio? Section H: Resources. What is alt. What does "" mean? Are there on-line versions of available? I can't find at any bookstores. What can I do? Why does cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand? What does XXX stand for? How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?
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What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards? What are the ethics of hacking? Why did you write this FAQ? Where can I get a copy of the alt. An entry in the password file consists of seven colon delimited fields:. Contrary to popular belief, Unix passwords cannot be decrypted. Unix passwords are encrypted with a one way function. The login program accepts the text you enter at the "Password:" prompt and then runs it through a cryptographic algorithm.
The results of that algorithm are then compared against the encrypted form of your password stored in the passwd file. On a more technical level, the password that you enter is used as a key to encrypt a bit block of NULLs.
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The first seven bits of each character are extracted to form a bit key. This means that only eight characters are significant in a standard Unix password. The E-table is then modified using the salt, which is a bit value, coerced into the first two chars of the stored passwd. The salt's purpose is to make precompiled passwordd lists and DES hardware chips more time consuming to use. DES is then invoked for 25 iterations. The bit output block and is then coerced into a character alphabet A-Z,a-z,".
This involves translations in which several different values are represented by the same character, which is why Unix passwords cannot be decrypted. Password cracking software uses wordlists. Each word in the wordlist is encrypted using the algorithm described above and the salts from the password file. The results are then compared to the encrypted form of the target password.
The best cracking program for Unix passwords is currently Crack by Alec Muffett. On older systems, password shadowing was often defeated by using a program that made successive calls to getpwent to obtain the entire password file. The purpose of NIS is to allow many machines on a network to share configuration information, including password data.
NIS is not designed to promote system security. The characters are password aging data. Password aging forces the user to change passwords after a system administrator-specified period of time. Password aging can also force a user to keep a password for a certain number of weeks before changing it. Note the comma in the encrypted password field.
The characters after the comma are used by the password aging mechanism. If the first and second characters are set to '.. The passwd program will then remove the passwd aging characters, and the user will not be subjected to password aging requirements again.
If the third and fourth characters are set to '.. Password aging will then occur as defined by the first and second characters.
Only root can change that users password. It should also be noted that the su command does not check the password aging data. An account with an expired password can be su'd to without being forced to change the password. Windows NT stores encrypted password hashes in the Registry. Windows NT passwords are encrypted with a one way function. This is similar to the way that Unix stores passwords, except that the Microsoft algorithm is significantly weaker.
Windows NT password can be cracked using wordlists. This is much the same as attacking Unix passwords with word lists, except that Microsoft passwords are much easier to crack. In addition, Microsoft passwords can be brute forced. This means that every password on the system can be retrieved. However, unlike traditional Unixen, most users do not have access to read the password file. DAT, in an attempt to increase security through obscurity. Virtually every aspect of the VMS system can be logged for investigation. System accounting is a facility for recording information about the use of the machine from a system accounting perspective resource logging such as CPU time, printer usage, etc.
To enable accounting:. This also is used to close the current log file and open a new one with a higher version number. A restrictive shell is a shell that has been modified to allow you to do fewer things than a normal shell would allow you to do. It may allow you to run only certain programs. It may stop you from changing directories.